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Rujeola sau pojarul la copii

In Boli si afectiuni , adaugat in
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Printeaza Articol

O boala intalnita mai ales in copilarie si care poate fi prevenita cu ajutorul vaccinurilor este rujeola. Descopera cum se manifesta rujeola si cum poate fi tratata.

Rujeola, cunoscuta si sub denumirea de pojar, este o boala contagioasa, care in trecut era foarte frecventa, dar care a devenit mult mai rara acum, datorita vaccinarilor.

Calea de transmitere a rujeolei este aerogena, prin picaturi, la distante mari. Feriti-va deci de stranutul sau tusea unui bolnav afectat de rujeola. Vulnerabilitatea la aceasta boala apare in sezonul rece, perioada februarie-mai. Virusul rujeolei are ca poarta de intrare mucoasa cailor respiratorii, avand apoi o perioada de incubatie de 10-14 zile.

Bolnavul este contagios din ultimele doua zile de incubatie, pana in a 5-a zi de la aparitia eruptiilor cutanate.

Forme de manifestare ale rujeolei


Atentie! A nu se confunda cu debutul unei gripe.

Pojarul (rujeola) se manifesta prin febra, nas care curge, ochi inflamati, tuse, eruptii, uneori antrenand complicatii serioase. Copilul cu pojar, are o stare generala de rau, marcata inclusiv de lipsa poftei de mancare.

Dupa aproape 4 zile, apar pete maronii in spatele urechilor, pe fata si pe gat. Acestea se raspandesc apoi pe tot corpul, mentinandu-se in jur de 5-7 zile.

In zilele 1 si 2 inaintea eruptiei, simptomele constau in tuse seaca, ochi rosii, lacrimosi si cresterea constanta a temperaturii, manifestari digestive precum greata, voma ori diaree.

 

 

In ziua a 3-a, apar in gura, pe interiorul obrazului, in dreptul molarilor, pete mici albe, asemanatoare cristalelor de sare.

In a 4-a zi, are loc eruptia petelor de un rosu inchis, usor reliefate. Acestea apar intai pe frunte, in spatele urechilor, urmand ca in ziua a 5-a sa se intinda treptat pe trunchi si membrele superioare, iar in a 6-a, pe membrele inferioare.

Dupa 2-3 zile eruptia este mai palida, iar celelalte simptome dispar.

In urmatoarele 3-4 zile, culoare pielii variaza spre cafeniu discret, continuand sa persiste pentru inca 6-7 zile, in convalescenta.

Cand eruptia inceteaza sa se mai raspandeasca, febra scade pana la valorile normale, iar copilul isi recapata vioiciunea, starea generala si pofta de mancare revenindu-i incet, in urmatoarele 8-10 zile.


Complicatiile rujeolei


Pojarul poate produce complicatii precum infectii la nivelul pieptului si al urechilor, bronsiolite, bronsite purulente, conjunctivite, stomatite, dar cel mai grav encefalite (inflamarea creierului).

La adulti, rujeola (pojarul) este mult mai rara decat la copii, evolueaza in forme mult mai grave, antrenand intoxicatie puternica, febra mare, tuse chinuitoare.

Foarte grava este rujeola in randul femeilor insarcinate, mai ales cand este contactata in primele 2-3 luni de sarcina, caci poate produce malformatii congenitale.


Cand sa apelati la medic


Medicul trebuie chemat indata ce ati constatat ca micutul ar putea avea pojar. Doctorul va confirma diagnosticul si va stabili tratamentul in caz de complicatii.



Trebuie sa apelati la medic in cazul in care sesizati urmatoarele simptome:

- somnolenta neobisnuita, crescanda;
- dureri de cap sau intepenirea cefei;
- convulsii;
- eruptii.

De asemenea daca:

- temperatura copilului creste brusc;
- copilul nu se simte mai bine dupa 3 zile de la aparitia eruptiei;
- respiratia copilului este zgomotoasa sau dificila;
- copilul are dureri de urechi.


Tratamentul copilului cu rujeola


Tratamentul pojarului are loc la domiciliu, sub atenta indrumare a medicului, pentru a evita eventualele complicatii.

Ceea ce puteti face este sa incercati sa-i scadeti temperatura. Un copil care are febra nu trebuie udat cu prosoape umede sau imbaiat in apa calduta, caci temperatura ii poate scadea prea mult, ducand la frisoane si la un nou acces de febra.

Cand copilul are febra, trebuie imbracat cu hainute subtiri si tinut intr-o camera racoroasa si bine aerisita. Are nevoie de asemenea sa bea multe lichide.

 

 


Atentie!


Nu administrati copilului aspirina pentru a-i scadea febra, deoarece acest lucru ii poate genera o boala grava, numita sindromul Reye.

Daca il dor ochii, ii puteti tampona cu vata inmuiata in apa fiarta si racita.

Este posibil sa nu suporte lumina, vrand sa stea in intuneric, cu jaluzelele trase si cat mai mult in pat. Pe tot parcursul bolii, copilul se poate simti foarte rau, de aceea trebuie sa fiti mereu langa el si sa-i oferiti un plus de afectiune.





Cuvinte cheie: Rujeola , Bolile copilariei , Ingrijirea copilului


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