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Importanta analizelor de sange in sarcina

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Analizele de sange sunt foarte importante atat in timpul sarcinii, cat si inainte de a ramane gravida. Acestea ofera medicului informatii cu privire la sistemul tau imunitar, ajuta la depistarea unor boli sau infectii, dar si la aflarea grupei sanguine. Totodata, cu ajutorul analizelor de sange, pot fi descoperite anumite carente sau malformatii congenitale.

Analizele recomandate inainte de conceptie

Analizele de sange privitoare la toxoplasmoza si la rubeola sunt recomandate inainte de momentul conceptiei, intrucat vaccinurile nu sunt recomandate in timpul sarcinii. Pe langa acestea, ar fi indicate testele in vederea depistarii hepatitei B si a sifilisului. Testarea pentru HIV ramane la latitudinea fiecareia.

 

Analiza de sange care confirma existenta sarcinii

Tocmai ai facut un test de sarcina si a iesit pozitiv. Urmatorul pas este confirmarea sarcinii de catre medic. Testul sanguin este mai fiabil decat cel de urina si poate fi efectuat dupa doua saptamani de la momentul conceptiei. Medicul iti va cere sa efectuezi o analiza de sange complexa, in vederea depistarii eventualelor carente din organism, pentru testarea imunitatii in fata unor boli, dar si pentru determinarea grupei sanguine.


Analize recomandate in a doua luna de sarcina

In luna a doua de sarcina, in vederea prevenirii oricarui risc de transmitere a infectiilor la fat, se recomanda serologia rubeolei, a toxoplasmozei, a sifilisului si a HIV-ului, foarte importante mai ales daca nu au fost facute inainte de momentul conceperii.

Rubeola este o boala benigna la copii, insa foarte periculoasa pentru fat cu precadere in primul trimestru de sarcina. Daca organismul viitoarei mamici nu a fost imunizat inainte de aparitia sarcinii, va fi urmarita serologia acestei boli pana in a patra luna de sarcina, inclusiv. Rubeola poate duce la avort spontan sau la malformatii grave ale fatului. Cele mai afectate sunt aparatul auditiv, ochii, aparatul circulator si sistemul nervos central.

Toxoplasmoza este o boala parazitara care poate cauza complicatii in dezvoltarea fatului. In cazul in care testul este negativ, medicul iti va cere sa respecti o igiena stricta: sa nu consumi decat carne foarte bine gatita (de preferinta, fiarta), sa te speli foarte bine pe maini dupa ce atingi carnea cruda, sa speli bine si sa decojesti fructele si legumele, sa eviti contactul cu pisicile si in special cu litiera acestora, sa nu te apuci de gradinarit fara sa porti mereu manusi etc.

In ceea ce priveste testarea pentru hepatita C, medicii o recomanda in primele saptamani de sarcina femeilor care au avut nevoie, in trecut, de transfuzii de sange sau celor care si-au facut tatuaje sau piercinguri.

 

recoltare sange gravida
Analiza de sange in timpul sarcinii

 

Analize in a treia luna de sarcina

In a treia luna de sarcina, analizele sanguine vor avea ca scop determinarea grupei sanguine si a RH-ului. Uneori, si tatal isi va face analize in acest sens, mai ales in vederea unor eventuale transfuzii de sange la nastere. RH-ul este foarte important in determinarea riscului de incompatibilite intre gravida si fat.

Daca viitoarea mamica are RH negativ, iar tatal are RH pozitiv, exista posibilitatea ca fatul sa aiba RH pozitiv, fiind, astfel, incompatibil cu cel al gravidei. Sistemul imunitar al acesteia va considera fatul ca fiind un corp strain si va produce anticorpi. Acest lucru implica o atenta monitorizare a fatului, pentru depistarea unei eventuale anemii provocate de anticorpii mamei.

Medicii recomanda testul pentru depistarea sindromului Down (trisomia 21). De obicei, se face un triplu test, in vederea depistarii defectelor de tub neural, trisomiei 21 si trisomiei 18. Testul este cu atat mai important cu cat femeia insarcinata are istoric familial de malformatii congenitale, daca a intrat in contact cu substante teratogene, daca este fumatoare sau daca sufera de boli precum diabetul zaharat insulino dependent.

 

Analize in luna a cincea

Analizele de sange in vederea depistarii diabetului gestational sunt propuse femeilor care prezinta acest risc: celor supraponderale, celor cu parinti care sufera de diabet sau celor care au deja un copil care, la nastere, a avut cel putin 4 kg.

 

Analize in luna a sasea de sarcina

Serologia hepatitei B este foarte importanta in aceasta luna. In cazul in care viitoarea mama este purtatoare a virusului hepatitei B, ea risca sa-l transmita bebelusului la nastere sau prin alaptare. In acest caz, se impune vaccinarea nou-nascutului.






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