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Cum influenteaza schimbarile climatice evolutia sarcinii

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Schimbarile climatice produse de-a lungul unui an aduc multiple schimbari ale organismului uman, care, de multe ori sunt sub forma unor afectiuni sau efecte negative asupra sanatatii noastre. La fel ca toti ceilalti, femeile insarcinate se confrunta cu influentele negative ale schimbarilor de temperatura, acest lucru afectand atat starea acestora, cat si evolutia fatului.

Cercetatorii au descoperit ca expunerea la temperaturi ridicate in timpul sarcinii creste riscul de a da nastere unor copii cu greutate scazuta. De asemenea, studiile arata ca incalzirea globala dramatica ar putea duce la nasterea unor copii mai putin sanatoasi pe termen lung.

Domnul doctor Silviu Istoc, medic primar obstetrica-ginecologie, ne explica cum influenteaza temperatura aerului evolutia sarcinii si care sunt efectele sale asupra mamei si a fatului.

Efectele adverse si perioadele sarcinii

In primul trimestru de sarcina pot aparea simptome din cauza schimbarilor climatice care produc deregrari hormonale, precum scaderea apetitului, scaderea in greutate, greata, varsaturi, crampe abdominale, infectii vaginale, dureri de cap , durere la nivelul sanilor.
In al doilea trimestru, simptomele raman aceleasi in mare parte, insa se accentueaza si afecteaza mai mult, acestea pot fi cresterea in greutate, Ameteala, retentia de lichide, crampe abdominale, hemoroizi, infectii vaginale, dureri de spate, dureri de cap, insomnie.

Al treilea trimestru de sarcina poate fi un cosmar din cauza modificarilor hormonale create de temperaturile ridicate. Femeile inarcinate pot suferi de arsuri abdominale, indigestie, constipatie, ameteala, umflarea membrelor, retentie de lichide, hemoroizi, infectii vaginale, dureri de spate, dureri de cap, insomnie, disconfort in timpul somnului, urinarea frecventa, tumefierea articulatiilor, crampe ale membrelor inferioare, cresterea tensiunii arteriale, caderea parului, anemie.

Simptomele pot varia, insa, in cazul femeilor insarcinate, pe langa simptomele care le creeaza disconfort accentuat, pot aparea avortul spontan, deshidratarea, hipersensibilitatea, contractii prematura in primele luni, dezlipirea placentei, insuficienta renala si lista poate continua. Nou-nascutul este sensibil la temperaturi prea ridicate sau prea scazute, din cauza capacitatii sale limitate de reglare a temperaturii. Deshidratarea, afectiuni renale, nastere prematura, greutate mica la nastere sunt asociate cu expunerea la caldura mamei in timpul sarcinii", explica dr. Silviu Istoc.

Schimbarile climatice si nasterea prematura

Cercetatorii de la Universitatea Ben-Gurion din Negev si Universitatea Harvard au studiat legatura dintre greutatea la nastere a copilului si temperatura aerului in timpul sarcinii. Rezultatele au fost destul de relevante, avand in vedere ca o crestere de 8,5 ° C in ultimul trimestru cu expunere medie a fost asociata cu o scadere de 170g din greutatea nou-nascutului.

Odata cu cresterea temperaturilor pe parcursul ultimului secol si a emisiilor de gaze cu efect de sera s-a ajuns la directionarea atentiei noastre asupra efectelor produse de caldura. Am constatat ca expunerea la temperaturi ridicate in timpul sarcinii creste riscul de greutate mica la nastere si poate provoca nastere prematura", afirma dr. Silviu Istoc.

cum-influenteaza-schimbarile-climatice-femeile-insarcinate

Temperatura influenteaza sexul copilului

Un studiu realizat in anul 2012 a constatat ca atunci cand temperaturile cresc in tara, se nasc mai multe fetite decat baieti. Acest lucru intareste rezultatele cercetarilor anterioare care sugereaza ca temperatura joaca un rol foarte important pentru evolutia sarcinii.

Inregistrarile arata ca in anii cu temperaturi ridicate in aproape toate anotimpurile au fost adusi pe lume mai multi copii de sex feminin. Explicatia posibila ar fi ca temperatura influenteaza procesul de formare a zigotului. Mamele care asteapta baietei au o sarcina mai grea, iar schimbarile climatice bruste ar putea duce la imposibilitatea de a duce la bun sfarsit o astfel de sarcina", spune dr. Silviu Istoc.

Sensibilitatea fatului este accentuata de caldura aerului

Cu ajutorul recensamintelor si a inregistrarilor climatice vechi de 150 de ani, profesorul suedez de sanatate publica, Ralph Catalano, si colegii sai sugereaza ca fluctuatiile rapide si mari de temperatura ar putea duce la scurtarea vietii oamenilor si la dificultati de reproducere. Studiul concluzioneaza ca mamele sunt mai susceptibile de a suferi un esec in sarcina cu fetusii de sex masculin atunci cand este cald si de a avea un succes al sarcinii atunci cand este frig.

De cele mai multe ori, fatul de sex masculin este mult mai fragil, mai sensibil decat cel feminin, acest lucru se observa din evolutia sarcinii si starea generala a mamei. Cele mai multe complicatii au fost evidentiate in cazul sarcinilor cu baieti, acelasi lucru se intampla si in cazul nasterilor premature", completeaza dr. Silviu Istoc.

Aparitia starilor de anxietate

Cu totii experimentam stari de neliniste, anxietate si depresie la trecerea de la un anotimp la altul, de la o temperatura la alta. Toate aceste dereglari nu sunt deloc constructive, din contra, ele afecteaza starea generala de sanatate si ne fac sa avem un randament mai scazut in activitatile pe care le intreprindem.

Multe dintre pacientele mele trec prin stari depresive atunci cand se produce trecerea de la frig la cald si invers. Aceste modificari sunt daunatoare pentru copil, el fiind conectat continuu cu mama sa, iar orice modificarea a ei, produce o modificarea a evolutiei fatului. Este indicat sa se realizeze terapii si activitati de relaxare pentru a evita astfel de dereglari", afirma dr. Silviu Istoc.

Dr. Silviu Istoc este medic primar Obstetrica-Ginecologie la Spitalul Medicover, in cadrul Departamentului de Medicina Materno-fetala si Chirurgie Ginecologica Minim Invaziva si la Clinica ProVita. Mai multe detalii puteti citi pe www.dristoc.ro si pe pagina de Facebook.






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