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Anemia in timpul sarcinii

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Daca nu vei avea cantitatea de fier necesara pentru a alimenta productia de hemoglobina din sange, atat tu cat si bebelusul veti suferi de anemie cauzata de deficitul de fier. Afectiunea este des intalnita in timpul sarcinii - aproximativ una din cinci femei o au in timpul celor 9 luni.

Cauzele anemiei in sarcina

In timpul sarcinii anemia este frecventa datorita cresterii volumului sangvin necesar dezvoltarii fatului.

Productia slaba globulelor rosii (cauzata de cantitatea mica de fier din organism, de malnutritie sau de blocajul renal) sau distrugerea (cauzata de inflamatii, sepsis sau de infectii cronice) ori de pierderea excesiva de sange (sangerari, paraziti intestinali, placenta previa, separare prematura a placentei, avort spontan, atonia uterina postpartum si hemoragii), toate acestea pot duce la aparitia anemiei la o femeie insarcinata.

Deficienta de fier este cea mai frecventa cauza a aparitiei anemiei in perioada de sarcina.

 

Cum pot sa ma asigur ca am suficient fier in organism?

Ca si in cazul vitaminelor si a mineralelor, alimentatia este cea mai buna metoda. Nu ar trebui sa ai nevoie de suplimente daca te asiguri ca ai o alimentatie bogata in fier. Acest lucru inseamna sa mananci cat mai multe legume, in special cele cu frunze de culoarea verde inchis, paine integrala, cereale bogate in fier, cartofi, scoici, stafide, prune uscate si leguminoase. Si vitamina C ajuta foarte mult. Consuma cat mai mult suc de portocale sau legume si fructe bogate in vitamina C, pentru a preveni anemia. Ceaiul si cafeaua ingreuneaza procesul organismului de a retine fier, lucru pentru care nu este indicat sa le consumi in timpul meselor.

 

Cum stiu daca sunt anemica?

Testele de sange facute in perioada sarcinii vor arata daca nivelul hemoglobinei este satisfacator. Este normal ca in timp nivelul sa scada putin, deoarece cantitatea de lichid in care celulele rosii se vor dilua, este mai mare. Doar daca nivelul hemoglobinei scade foarte mult, ti se vor prescrie tablete.

 

Sunt unele femei mai predispuse la anemie decat altele?

Femeile care au o alimentatie scazuta in fier au cele mai mari sanse sa sufere de anemie. Ai mari sanse sa suferi de anemie daca rezervele de fier ale organismului au fost epuizate, daca ai avut doua sau mai multe sarcini apropiate sau daca ai avut perioade mai dificile inainte de sarcina. Daca astepti gemeni sau tripleti, atunci automat cresc si riscurile.

anemia in timpul sarcinii

 

Simptomele anemiei in perioada de sarcina

Poti fi anemica si sa nu iti dai seama, desi oboseala este un simptom obisnuit pentru asa ceva. Aceste simptome pot aparea la femeile gravide chiar daca nu sunt anemice.

Aparitia oboselii, dificultati de respiratie in timpul efortului, insomnia, culoarea palida a pielii, palpitatii, dureri de cap, ameteli si ritm cardiac rapid se numara printre simptomele anemiei in perioada de sarcina. Pleoapele, unghiile si limba pot deasemenea sa para palide. Aceste simptome sunt rezultatul scaderii nivelului de oxigen din corp. Anemia apare atunci cand nivelul hemoglobinelor din sange este scazut.

 

Cum se trateaza anemia?

Poti creste nivelul de absorbtie al fierului cand esti insarcinata consumand suc de portocale sau rosii impreuna cu vitaminele prenatale precum si prin consumarea alimentelor bogate in fier. Doctorul iti va explica ce inseamna o dieta sanatoasa si bogata in fier, putand chiar sa iti prescrie si suplimente. Tratamentul include inlocuirea componentelor lipsa precum fierul, acidul folic si vitamina B12.

Partea urata la aceste suplimente e ca pot provoca efecte secundare: te pot constipa, iti pot provoca greata, diaree si dureri de burta. Cresterea concentratiei de fibre din alimentatia ta poate preveni aceste efecte secundare. Daca aceste efecte secundare se agraveaza, cere doctorului sa le schimbe sau sa reduca dozele, pentru ca "mai putin" e totusi mai bun decat "de fel".

 

Anemia poate afecta sanatatea bebelusului?

Poate afecta sanatatea bebelusului in cazul in care suferi de o anemie severa. Organismul tau se va asigura ca mai intai bebelusul sa aiba cantitatea necesara de fier si apoi tu. In timpul celui de-al doilea si al treilea trimestru al sarcinii, concentratia de fier necesara bebelusului va creste, acesta fiind momentul in care va trebui sa te ingrijesti cel mai mult de sanatatea ta.

 

O femeie insarcinata trebuie sa urmeze mereu recomandarile medicale pentru sanatatea proprie si a fatului. Anemia in sarcina nu este doar o conditie a carei durata este de 9 luni precum sarcina, ci efectele acesteia pot provoca scaderi de fier si dupa nastere, dar mai ales pot sa aduca carente vitaminica in dezvoltarea copilului care are atat de mare nevoie de nutrienti.






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