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Trombofiliile si sarcina

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Trombofilia este o afectiune legata de timpul de coagulare al sangelui si care poate duce la avort. Iata ce masuri trebuie luate in acest caz:

Trombofiliile sunt o categorie de tulburari ale coagularii sangelui, care pot fi sau ereditare, sau dobandite. Coagularea sangelui este un mecanism complex, dar necesar al functionarii trupului. Cand apare o rana, intervin mai multe etape, derulate intr-o ordine specifica, al caror rezultat este formarea cheagului de sange.

Fara acest mecanism, o simpla zgarietura pe picior provocata de o lama ar putea duce la moartea unui om.

Probabil ai auzit despre hemofilie. Persoanei care sufera de hemofilie ii lipsesc mecanismele implicate in formarea cheagului de sange.

 

gravida bolnava

 

La antipodul problemei, trombofiliile sunt tulburari care duc la formarea cheagurilor de sange cand acest lucru nu ar trebui sa se intample.

Ele se pot forma in interiorul vaselor de sange, incetinind sau blocand circulatia acestuia. Formarea cheagurilor de sange este periculoasa pentru ca trombul se poate desprinde de la locul formarii si se poate deplasa spre plamani si/sau creier.

Trombofiliile necesita o atentie speciala in timpul sarcinii din cauza modificarilor care au loc in corpul femeii insarcinate. Posibilitatea formarii unor trombi periculosi este crescuta in aceasta perioada.

Cheagul de sange format in timpul sarcinii reprezinta un pericol nu numai pentru mama, ci si pentru copil: trombul se poate forma intr-un vas de sange care alimenteaza placenta, scazand sau blocand total circulatia sanguina catre fat.

Asa cum am afirmat anterior, exista doua tipuri de trombofilii: ereditare (ne nastem cu ele) si dobandite. Fiecare tip de trombofilie prezinta mai multe subcategorii. Fiecare subcategorie este denumita/descrisa prin proteina sau „factorul” anormal:

 

Trombofiliile ereditare:

- Factorul V Leiden (forma cea mai raspandita);
- Modificari ale protrombinei;
- Deficit de antitrombina;
- Deficit de proteina C;
- Deficit de proteina S;
- MTHFR.

MTHFR este inclusa in categoria trombofiliilor, fiind o afectiune a sangelui care poate cauza formarea trombilor. MTHFR este o anomalie genetica avand mai multe mutatii cunoscute. Multe persoane afectate de MTHFR nu pot metaboliza acidul folic.

Trombofiliile dobandite sunt tulburari ale coagularii sangelui care se dezvolta in urma unor vatamari sau a altor afectiuni medicale.

 

hemofilia

Trombofiliile dobandite:

- Sindromul antifosfolipidic;
- Lupus anticoagulant;
- Trombocitopenia indusa de heparina (TIH);
- Hemoglobinuria paroxistica nocturna (HPN).

Simptomele trombofiliei

De regula, trombofiliile ereditare si dobandite nu au simptome daca nu exista un cheag de sange activ. Simptomele unui cheag sunt durerea, sensibilitatea, inflamatiile si paloarea de obicei a unei extremitati. In cazul in care banuiesti existenta unui tromb, nu masa zona, caci s-ar putea sa determini desprinderea trombului.

Ambele tipuri de trombofilii pot da nastere unor complicatii in cazul unei sarcini. Printre complicatii se numara: travaliul inainte de termen, dezvoltarea fetala insuficienta fiind posibil si un avort spontan.

Trombofiliile se diagnosticheaza prin teste de sange. Rezultatele ii indica medicului tipul de afectiune cu care te confrunti.


Tratamentul trombofiliilor


Tratamentul trombofiliei depinde de tipul acesteia. Persoanei careia ii lipseste un anumit factor de coagulare i se poate administra acel factor. Alti pacienti pot fi tratati pe cale orala cu anti-coagulante pentru a scadea sansele de formare a unui cheag.

Indiferent de tip, pacientele insarcinate trebuie urmarite cu strictete. Multe femei afectate de trombofilie duc pana la capat sarcini normale.

Mai avem multe de invatat in ceea ce priveste trombofilia. Ceea ce se cunoaste este ca multi oameni sufera de trombofilie fara a avea nicio neplacere.

Femeile care au antecedente familiale de dereglari ale coagularii sangelui, avorturi multiple sau antecedente personale de formare de cheaguri sunt sfatuite sa se supuna unor teste pentru determinarea tulburarilor de coagulare a sangelui.





Cuvinte cheie: Avort spontan , Complicatii sarcina , Sarcina cu risc


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