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Alunitele la copii – cand este cazul sa mergem la dermatolog

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Cele mai multe dintre alunite nu sunt periculoase, insa o mare proportie dintre cazurile de melanom incep de la o alunita. Este, asadar, de inteles de ce aparitia alunitelor la copii reprezinta un motiv de ingrijorare pentru parinti, tematori ca cel mic ar putea fi in pericol sa dezvolte o afectiune grava a pielii. 

Domnul doctor Laurentiu Vladau, specialist dermatolog in cadrul Clinicii Hebra Dermatologie, asigura parintii ca marea majoritate a alunitelor sunt inofensive, un consult de specialitate anual completat cu monitorizarea alunitelor la domiciliu fiind suficient pentru a depista din timp si trata eventuale probleme.

Alunitele, numite si „nevi", sunt pete sau excrescente, ovale sau rotunde, a caror culoare cauzata de celule pigmentare, numite melanocite, poate varia de la cafeniu deschis pana la roz, maro sau negru. Aproximativ 1 din 100 de copii se naste cu o alunita, numita in acest caz nev congenital. Cele mai multe alunite se dezvolta, insa, in primii 20 de ani de viata, desi este posibil ca ele sa apara la orice varsta.

Alunitele, la fel ca si melanomul, pot aparea oriunde, dar tind sa se dezvolte mai ales pe brate, fata, scalp, pe partea superioara a spatelui si piept, astfel incat este important ca acestea sa fie monitorizate cu atentie si de catre parinti la domiciliu, nu doar in cabinetul medicului dermatolog.

dr-laurentiu-vladau-hebra-dermatologie

 

O vizita anuala la dermatolog este suficienta in cazul in care copilul nu are mai mult de 25 de alunite pe corp si nici nu exista antecedente familiale de melanom sau alt tip de cancer. Este recomandat mai mult de un control pe an in cazul in care exista un istoric de alunite anormale sau un sindrom genetic sau de ordin imunologic. Nu in ultimul rand, este important de precizat faptul ca mult temutul melanom isi face aparitia de obicei in anii adolescentei, aceasta afectiune fiind foarte rara la copiii mici", spune domnul doctor Laurentiu Vladau, specialist dermatolog in cadrul Clinicii Hebra Dermatologie.

Medicul va verifica in timpul controalelor anuale leziunile cutanate suspecte care se pot transforma in melanom. In ceea ce priveste alte tipuri de cancer de piele, carcinomul cu celule bazale si carcinomul cu celule scuamoase, acestea sunt exceptionale la copii si de obicei apar numai la pacientii care prezinta boli genetice ce predispun la aparitia acestor leziuni.

Monitorizarea si ingrijirea alunitelor la copii

Este recomandat ca la fiecare trei luni copilul sa fie examinat din cap pana in picioare la domiciliu, cu scopul a identifica alunitele care ar putea reprezenta un periocol. „Ar putea fi utila realizarea de fotografii pentru a compara alunitele de la un control la altul si a observa eventuale schimbari in marime, forma sau culoare. Daca se observa o diferenta semnificativa, in cazul in care exista o alunita noua sau una care si-a schimbat forma sau culoarea este recomandata vizita imediata la dermatolog", spune domnul doctor dermatolog Laurentiu Vladau.

Nu in ultimul rand, este esential ca cel mic sa fie ferit de expunerea excesiva la soare, numeroase studii indicand faptul ca existenta a peste trei arsuri solare creste sansele copilului de a dezvolta melanom.

alunitele-la-copii-cand-este-cazul-sa-mergem-la-dermatolog

 

Pentru a preveni arsurile solare copiii sub 6 luni trebuie tinuti la umbra cat mai mult posibil. De la 6 luni la 2 ani, cel mic ar trebui sa stea departe de soare de la ora 10 pana la ora 15, interval in care razele sunt deosebit de puternice. Parintii trebuie sa se asigure ca aplica protectie solara cu spectru larg, cu dioxid de titan sau oxid de zinc si de preferat cu un SPF de cel putin 30. Pentru siguranta este recomandata reaplicarea la fiecare una pana la doua ore, sau chiar mai des in cazul in care micutul este activ sau transpira. Bineinteles ca aceste recomandari sunt valabile si in cazul copiilor mai mari. Palariile de soare pot feri copiii de toate varstele de eruptii cutanate, deoarece acestea acopera pielea si de obicei au un factor de protectie impotriva radiatiilor ultraviolete (UPF) 50", spune specialistul dermatolog.

Specialistul enumera in continuare si alte semnale alarmante care ar trebui sa ne trimita la medic, printre care se numara alunitele care sangereaza si nu se vindeca, cele care isi modifica structura, fie ca sunt alunite plane, fie palpabile si alunitele care devin mai inchise la culoare sau care isi schimba culoarea in rosu, gri, alb, albastru.

Semne de ingrijorare ar trebui sa ridice si alunitele care au margine neregulata si sunt asimetrice. Pentru a vedea daca o alunita este asimetrica se poate acoperi cu o rigla opaca jumatate din ea, urmand ca ulterior sa fie comparata cu cealalta jumatate. Daca exista diferente, inseamna ca alunita este asimetrica si ar trebui sa cerem o parere de specialitate", recomanda domnul doctor Laurentiu Vladau.

Asadar, in cele mai multe dintre cazuri alunitele la copii nu reprezinta un motiv de ingrijorare, fiind absolut normal ca acestea sa apara in copilarie si adolescenta. O monitorizare periodica la domiciliu a alunitelor de catre parinti, vizitele anuale la medicul dermatolog, precum si adoptarea unor masuri de preventie, cum ar fi limitarea expunerii la soare a copiilor, se vor dovedi eficiente in a evita aparitia unor viitoare probleme de ordin dermatologic ale micutului.





Cuvinte cheie: Alunite la copii , Ingrijirea copilului , Pielea copilului


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