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Diareea la copii

In Boli si afectiuni , adaugat in
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Printeaza Articol

Diareea este o afectiune sau un simptom manifestata prin eliminarea frecventa de scaune moale sau apoasa, ce poate aparea la orice varsta. Iata ce trebuie sa stii despre simptomele si cauzele diareei, cum ar trebui tratata acasa, cand sa iti duci copilul la doctor si ce poti face pentru a o preveni.

Diareea sau gastroenterita acuta este una dintre cele mai comune boli ale copilariei. Exista multe cauze ale acesteia, iar pentru multe din acestea nu exista un tratament specific.

 

Simptomele diareei la copii

Cand un copil are diaree, excretiile rinichilor sunt moi, umede si au loc mai des decat de obicei.  Exista mai multe tipuri de diaree: poate fi moderata (1-2 scaune umede) sau grava (10 scaune umede pe zi).  La diaree, scaunul poate avea o culoare diferita fata de normal si poate contine sange. Nu este neobisnuit pentru un copil sa vomite, pe langa diaree.

Simptomul cel mai frecvent este scaunul lichid, abundent. Copilul tau ar putea sa aiba febra, eruptie si senzatie de voma in primele 24-48 de ore. Diareea cauzata de virusi poate dura pana la 14 zile. Diareea e periculoasa daca provoaca deshidratare, adica pierderea lichidelor din corp. Semnele acestei probleme sunt: urinare mai putin frecventa, lipsa lacrimilor, piele uscata, etc.


Cauzele diareei

Iata cateva cauze posibile pentru diareea la copii:

Infectii virale

La copiii mici, rotavirusul este cea mai frecventa cauza pentru diaree si deshidratarea grava in lume. Aceste infectii au loc cand copiii sunt impreuna in grupuri mai mari, cum ar fi in gradinite si scoli. Rotavirusul este un pericol major din tarile subdezvoltate din Africa si alte regiuni. Infectia poate poate fi prevenita prin vaccinare. Pe masura ce copiii cresc, exista si alte infectii virale care cauzeaza diaree.

Infectiile bacteriene

La orice varsta, bacterii ca salmonella, shigella, campylobacter sau E-coli pot cauza diaree cu sange. Mai rar se intampla sa fie cauza diareei la copii, dar pot avea si forme mai grave. Apa si mancarea contaminata din anumite tari tropicale pot conduce la unele din aceste infectii, dar contractarea lor pe teritoriul tarii este, de asemenea, posibila.

Intoleranta la mancare

Desi infectiile sunt cea mai cunoscuta cauza a diareei, ocazional, diareea se datoreaza intolerantei la anumite mancaruri, sau alergiei. Diareea cronica poate fi legata de intoleranta la lactoza (incapacitatea de a digera lactoza) care ar putea aparea in tinerete. Si alergia la proteinele laptelui de vaca poate cauza diaree.

Antibiotice

Probabil, unul dintre cele mai cunoscute efecte secundare pe care le intalnim la copii tratati cu antibiotice este diareea care urmeaza. Antibioticele nu doar ca trateaza orice infectie a copilului, dar vor ucide, uneori si unele bacterii normale din intestin care ajuta la digerarea hranei, ceea ce conduce la diaree.

 

diareea la copii

 

Tratamentul diareei copii

In majoritatea cazurilor, copiii cu diaree pot fi tratati acasa. Iata cum:

Concentreaza-te pe lichide

Cand copiii au diaree, pierd mai multe lichide decat de obicei si trebuie sa le inlocuiasca, astfel ca au nevoie sa bea mai mult decat cantitatea normala de lichide. Pentru a compensa pierderea de lichide, am recomanda o solutie de rehidratare orala, care contine apa si electroliti pentru a mentine hidratarea. Pe cand copiii mai mici tind sa nu aiba probleme cu inghitirea acestei solutii, care are gust de apa sarata, copii mai mari si prescolarii ar putea sa aiba probleme cu gustul. Din cauza continutului ridicat de zahar, sucul de fructe agraveaza diareea, astfel ca nu il recomandam. Pentru copiii mai mari, sucul diluat sau bauturile care contine electroliti pot ajuta diminuarea pierderii lichidelor. Discuta cea mai buna optiune pentru copilul tau cu medicul.

Fa schimbari in regimul alimentar

Daca diareea este moderata, de obicei nu se recomanda parintilor schimbarea regimului alimentar. Daca diareea este mai grava se recomanda intoarcerea la mancaruri usor de digerat. Presupunand ca micutul nu vomita, se recomanda lichide clare si alimente, ca banane, orez, sos de mere si paine prajita. Aceste mancaruri ar putea reduce diareea si ar putea ajuta la impiedicarea agravarii ei sau a deshidratarii.

 

Important: Consultati medicul pediatru daca bebelusul nu a implinit 6 luni si are diaree, daca are scaun cu sange, daca inca mai vomita dupa 4-6 ore, daca are o temperatura mai mare de 38,5°C sau daca prezinta semne de deshidratare!





Cuvinte cheie: Diaree la copii , Deshidratarea la copii , Infectii bacteriene


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