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Cresterea ponderala a bebelusului pana la 1 an

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In primul an de viata, bebelusii cresc mult in greutate. Descopera valoriile medii ale cresterii in greutate a bebelusului, in primele 12 luni.

Greutatea aproximativa la nastere este de 3000-3500 de grame. O greutate normala se incadreaza intre 2500 si 4500 de grame.

Bebelusii nascuti sub 2500 de grame sunt subdezvoltati si in general sunt aceia nascuti prematur. Cei care la nastere depasesc 4500 de grame sunt considerati supraponderali, copii uriasi.

Imediat dupa nastere, este normal ca nou-nascutii sa piarda in greutate, in general cam 100-150 de grame, greutate pe care o vor recupera in urmatoarele zece zile. Scaderea in greutate se observa in primele 3-5 zile. Aceasta se datoreaza trecerii traumatizante de la viata intrauterina la cea extrauterina, efortului de a se adapta si faptului ca pierderile prin urina, scaun, piele si plamani, adica prin respiratie, sunt mai mari decat cantitatea de lichide pe care o primeste. Daca nu depaseste o zecime din greutatea corpului la nastere, adica 300 de grame din 3000, pierderea in greutate nu este alarmanta si nu prezinta importanta. Este ceea ce se numeste scaderea ponderala fiziologica.

De obicei, bebelusii incep din nou sa creasca din ziua a 4-a sau a 5-a, atingand in ziua a 10-a sau cateodata mai tarziu, chiar greutatea de la nastere.

 

diversificarea_alimentatiei


Atentie! Daca bebelusul nu a atins la inceputul saptamanii a 4-a greutatea de la nastere, atunci trebuie sa luam in calcul aspectele care pot provoca aceasta situatie, precum subalimentatia sau chiar boala. In aceste conditii, trebuie anuntat imediat medicul.

In urmatoarele treisprezece saptamani, sugarul creste in greutate cu 150-200 de grame pe saptamana, dupa care cresterea devine mai lenta si continua fara oscilatii prea mari. Este foarte important acest aspect caci evaluarea dezvoltarii normale a copilului, in prima faza dupa nastere, se face prin urmarirea acestui proces de crestere in greutate.

 

Greutatea la nastere depinde de mai multi factori

Spre exemplu :

- baietii au o greutate mai mare decat fetele

- primul nascut are o greutate mai mica decat fratii nascuti mai tarziu

- in functie de ereditate, cei cu parinti inalti si bine facuti, vin pe lume cu o greutate mai mare decat cei ai caror parinti sunt de statura mica

- de asemenea factorii de mediu, sau fumatul in timpul sarcinii pot influenta greutatea corporala la nastere.

Pentru a aprecia felul in care se dezvolta copilul vostru si de asemenea, daca ratia zilnica de lapte este suficienta, recomandam cantarirea regulata, dar saptamanal sau lunar, nu zilnic. Caci un sugar, chiar foarte sanatos, nu creste zilnic. De aceea e bine sa-l cantariti saptamanal, la inceput, apoi la 2 saptamani si apoi lunar.

Daca vreti sa aflati greutatea exacta a bebelusului, il dezbracati de tot. Cantarirea este indicata fie dimineata inainte de masa, fie seara inainte de baie, oricum e bine sa se faca la aceeasi ora, dar niciodata imediat dupa masa.

 

mersul-de-a-busilea

 

Foarte multe mame tin sa-si vada copilul dolofan, bucalat, plin de pernute. Acesta nu este nici pe departe un semn de sanatate. Sanatatea copilului este apreciata de catre medic dupa cu totul alte criterii, cum ar fi starea generala, buna dispozitie a copilului, gradul de dezvoltare, taria musculaturii, culoarea si calitatile pielii. Un copil gras nu este in niciun caz mai ferit de boli, ci dimpotriva, mai expus, grasimea facandu-l mai putin rezistent. Mai gras sau mai slab, important este ca bebelusul sa fie sanatos, vioi si bine dispus.

Incercati sa nu-l indopati, dar nici sa-l subalimentati, ambele extreme fiind periculoase. O schema care sa va ghideze orientativ o vom etala mai jos, cu mentiunea ca datele reprezinta o medie si nu sunt absolut obligatorii.

Unii copii cresc mai repede, altii mai incet. Sunt copii care cresc in salturi, recuperand rapid stagnarea. Deci nu aveti motive de ingrijorare daca bebelusul vostru nu creste dupa aceasta schema. Ritmul de crestere este influentat de modul de hranire, spre exemplu un copil alimentat cu lapte matern va inregistra o crestere mai regulata, spre deosebire de cel hranit artificial.

Recuperarea greutatii de la nastere presupune atingerea ratiei alimentare optime. In general un sugar cu greutatea medie de trei kilograme si jumatate, trebuie sa consume 700 de grame pe zi de lapte, astfel are nevoie de 80-100g de lapte pe kilogram-corp.

 

Cresterea ponderala medie, a unui sugar sanatos

- in primele 4 luni va creste cu 750-800 de grame pe luna sau 175-200 de grame pe saptamana

- intre 4 si 8 luni va creste cu 500-600 de grame pe luna sau 100-125 de grame pe saptamana

- din luna a 8-a pana la 1 an creste cu 250-300 de grame pe luna sau 60-75 de grame pe saptamana.

Calculand pe zile, un sugar ar trebui sa creasca in medie:

- in primul trimestru cu 25 de grame pe zi

- in al doilea trimestru cu 20 de grame pe zi

- in al treilea trimestru cu 15 grame pe zi

- in al patrulea trimestru cu 10 grame pe zi.

In lunile 4-6, greutatea de la nastere se dubleaza, iar in jurul varstei de 1 an se tripleaza. La optsprezece luni, greutatea unui copil cu dezvoltare medie este de douasprezece kilograme. La varsta de 3 ani, poate ajunge la 13,5 - 14 kilograme.

La cei nascuti prematur, greutatea de la nastere se dubleaza pe la 3 luni si jumatate si se tripleaza catre a 6-a luna, la 1 an ajungand sa se cvadrupleze. In general copiii cu greutate mai mica la nastere, cresc ulterior mai repede, recuperand ramanerea in urma.

Un sugar care nu ia in greutate 1-2 saptamani reprezinta un semnal de alarma si trebuie examinat de catre medic pentru a depista eventualele cauze ale stagnarii ponderale.

Reamintim, toate aceste cifre sunt orientative, cresterea presupune variatii si diferente de la copil la copil, ritmul de parcurgere a etapelor fiind diferit!






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