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Aparitia dintisorilor bebelusului: un moment problematic

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Printeaza Articol

Primii dinti ai bebelusului apar deobicei in jurul varstei de 5-6 luni. In perioada eruptiei, bebelusii pot prezenta stari febrile, neliniste, somn intrerupt.

Sa fie mereu dintii de vina?

Fiecare mama, fara exceptie, traverseaza alaturi de bebelusul ei perioada extrem de dificila a aparitiei primilor dinti.

Eruptia dentara se manifesta in jurul varstei de 5-6 luni. Abia de acum incolo apar primii dinti. De aceea, avertizam ca unele stari de indispozitie ale copilului sunt in mod eronat puse pe seama acestui fenomen, inainte de varsta respectiva. Agitatia, plansul sau iritabilitatea, atribuite momentului eruptiei dentare, ar putea constitui un risc, neglijandu-se astfel reala afectiune.

Foarte rar dentitia provoaca probleme bebelusului inaintea varstei de 5-6 luni. Deci atentie, sa nu ignorati disconfortul care poate veni din alta parte. Copiii isi marturisesc suferintele prin plans. Fiti atenti la manifestarile lor, caci intr-un fel sau altul, ei singuri va vor comunica eventualele cauze.

 

De ce duc bebelusii totul la gura?

De asemenea, obiceiul bebelusilor de a duce la gura, sugand sau mestecand, toate obiectele cu care vin in contact, nu are neaparat legatura cu foamea sau aparitia dintilor, cu atat mai putin inaintea celor 5 luni. Este stiut faptul ca primul instrument de explorare al copiilor il reprezinta gura, incepand chiar din perioada intrauterina. Astfel ca de la nastere si pana dupa varsta de un an, tot ce prinde cu mana va fi dus inainte de toate la gura, spre cunoastere.

Ducerea la gura a obiectelor din jur are avantaje multiple, caci obisnuieste bebelusii sa mestece alimentele semisolide si solide, care urmeaza sa intre treptat in alimentatia sa.

Toti copiii fac acest lucru intre 6 si 15 luni, de aceea trebuie avut in vedere ca toate jucariile sa fie facute din cauciuc, material plastic sau lemn bine slefuit, evitandu-se formele cu colturi sau ascutite. De asemenea sunt de ocolit jucariile pictate sau lacuite. Acest gest nu este intr-atat de riscant pe cat am fi tentati sa credem, caci obiectele pe care le duce la gura bebelusul, sunt contaminate cu germenii proprii, la care el este adaptat. Daca tinem totusi, obiectele pot fi spalate si dezinfectate prin fierbere, la rastimpuri, mai ales daca au cazut pe jos.

 

Primii dinti

Primii dinti erup usor. Cei care erup mai greu, putand provoca durere, sunt molarii de lapte si caninii. Un dinte care isi incepe eruptia, poate determina o usoara congestie a gingiei, fiindca produce la nivelul acesteia o plaga taiata. Aceasta genereaza uneori aparitia unui puseu febril insotit de agitatie, somn intrerupt si stari de indispozitie. Cele mai frecvente tulburari sunt provocate de eruptia primilor incisivi inferiori, de asemenea de primii molari, de canini si de ultimii molari de lapte.

Aparitia dintilor se face intr-o anumita succesiune, dar varsta la care apare primul dinte poate varia de la un bebelus la altul. Sunt copii ai caror dinti incep sa apara in jurul varstei de 6-7 luni si copii care la finele primului an nu au inca niciun dinte. Cu toate acestea si unii si altii sunt perfect sanatosi, normali si cu o dezvoltare la fel de buna. Dintii care incheie dentitia de lapte apar aproximativ la 2 ani, 2 ani si jumatate, data care marcheaza si sfarsitul primei copilarii.

Exista insa si cazuri exceptionale, in care copiii prezinta dinti inca de la nastere, asa-zisii dinti "congenitali". Acestia sunt de obicei incisivii mediani inferiori, subtiri, mobili si fara radacina. In general este indicat sa se indeparteze pentru a preintampina eventuale accidente prin aspiratia lor, dar in ultimul timp, unii stomatologi recomanda mentinerea lor.

 

dintisori4

 

 

Ordinea aparitiei dintilor la bebelusi

Incisivii mediani inferiori sunt primii dinti care apar. Sunt urmati apoi de incisivii mediani superiori si incisivii laterali superiori. La varsta de un an, bebelusul are deja 6 dinti.

Numarul dintilor, la o anumita varsta se deduce dupa o formula orientativa. Aceasta pleaca de la varsta copilului in luni, minus cele 6 luni de pana la aparitia primului dinte. Astfel, la 12 luni, copilul va avea un numar egal cu 12 minus primele 6 luni, deci 6 dinti. Dupa eruptia primilor dinti, urmeaza o perioada de cateva luni pana la eruptia urmatorilor 6. Acestia sunt: incisivii laterali inferiori si primii molari de lapte. Aparitia acestor dinti are loc succesiv, la un interval nu prea mare de timp. Intre molari si incisivii laterali, pe care ii urmeaza cronologic, ramane un spatiu liber pentru canini, a caror eruptie se face mai tarziu. Mai intai apar caninii superiori si apoi cei inferiori.

 

dintisori5

 

Dentitia de lapte se incheie cu eruptia celui de-al doilea molar de lapte. De data aceasta primii erup molari inferiori si apoi cei superiori. Acestia au o coroana cu suprafata mare, de aceea ei perforeaza si indeparteaza o portiune mai mare de gingie. Toate acestea vor determina manifestari mai neobisnuite in comportamentul bebelusului, cu agitatie pe parcursul zilei, treziri si plansete mai dese peste noapte. Insa nu va impacientati, vor disparea imediat dupa eruptie.

Eruptia dentara poate fi uneori atipica, unii dinti intarziind sa apara si fiind astfel depasiti de urmatorii. Exista cazuri in care incisivii laterali superiori ii preceda pe cei mediani.

Primii dinti, incisivii, nu servesc la masticatie, ci la muscat. Cu acestia, copilul rade sau desprinde o bucata dintr-un mar sau morcov. Copilul poate sa mestece chiar si cand are numai un singur dinte, deoarece masticatia o face cu gingiile, cu mult timp inainte de aparitia molarilor. Aparitia incisivilor face ca bebelusul sa poata musca de acum tetina sau mamelonul. O face incidental, in joaca sau cand nu mai vrea sa suga, impiedicat fiind de maxilare, atunci cand pozitia pentru supt a gingiei este bine adaptata.

 

Bebelusii cu dinti sanatosi

Mugurii dentari se formeaza inca din momentul vietii intrauterine, de aceea pentru o contributie cat mai mare la dezvoltarea lor sanatoasa, mama ar trebui sa tina cont de alimentatia sa, pe toata perioada de sarcina. Este important ca aceasta sa contina toate elementele necesare formarii dintilor, dar mai ales calciu si fosfor. Cele mai bogate alimente in aceste minerale sunt laptele si derivatele de lapte, carnea si pestele. Toate acestea trebuie sa stea la baza regimului alimentar al gravidelor.

De asemenea este extrem de important ca in perioada ultimelor luni de sarcina, gravida sa cultive plimbarile indelungi in aer liber, mai ales in zilele cu soare, pentru efectul deosebit de benefic al razelor ultraviolete. Deloc de neglijat sunt si preparatele farmaceutice care contin calciu, vitamina D si C.






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